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Monthly Archives: June 2018

Substances Use Disorder and Co-occurring Mental Health Conditions

Many individuals with a substance use disorder suffer from some type of mental health disorder as well,1,2 while some having multiple substance use disorders. According to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), of the 20.8 million people aged 12 or older who had a substance use disorder during the past year, about 2.7 million (13 percent) had both alcohol use and an illicit drug use disorder, and 41.2 percent also had a mental illness.3 Particularly striking is the 3 to 4-fold higher rate of tobacco smoking among patients with schizophrenia and the high prevalence of co-existing alcohol use disorder in those meeting criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is estimated that 30-60 percent of patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder meet the criteria for PTSD,4,5 and approximately one-third of individuals who have experienced PTSD have also experienced alcohol dependence at some point in their lives.

The reasons why substance use and mental health disorders often occur together are not clear, and establishing the relationships between these conditions is difficult. Still, three possible explanations deserve attention. One reason for the overlap may be that having a mental health disorder increases vulnerability to substance use disorders because certain substances may, at least temporarily, be able to reduce the symptoms of the mental health disorder and thus are particularly reinforcing the need to use in these individuals. Second, substance use disorders may increase vulnerability for mental health disorders,6-8 meaning that the use of certain substances might trigger a mental health disorder that otherwise would have not occurred. For example, research suggests that alcohol use increases the risk of PTSD by altering the brain’s ability to recover from traumatic experiences.9,10 Similarly, the use of marijuana, particularly marijuana with a high THC content, might contribute to schizophrenia in those who have specific genetic vulnerabilities.11 Third, it is also possible that both substance use and mental health disorders are caused by shared, overlapping factors such as particular genes, neurological deficits, and exposure to traumatic or stressful life experiences. As these possibilities are not mutually exclusive, the relationship between substance use and mental health disorders may result from a combination of these processes.

Regardless of which one might influence the development of the other, mental and substance use disorders have overlapping symptoms, making diagnosis and treatment planning particularly challenging. For example, people who use methamphetamine for a long time may experience paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions that may be mistaken for symptoms of schizophrenia, and the psychological symptoms that accompany withdrawal, such as depression and anxiety, maybe mistaken as simply part of withdrawal instead of an underlying mood disorder that requires independent treatment.

Given the prevalence of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders, it is critical that addiction treatment professionals perform a comprehensive medical and psychological evaluations in order to provide effective treatment programs that will treat both conditions.

 

Material Above is Courtesy of: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health
surgeongeneral.gov

 

References:

  1. Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Dufour, M. C., Compton, W., . . . Kaplan, K. (2004). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), 807-816.
  2. Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Ruan, W. J., & Pickering, R. P. (2004). Cooccurrence of 12-month alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(4), 361-368.
  3. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
  4. Chilcoat, H. D., & Menard, C. (2003). Epidemiological investigations: Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder. In P. Ouimette & P. J. Brown (Eds.), Trauma and substance abuse: Causes, consequences, and treatment of comorbid disorders. (pp. 9-28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  5. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593-602.
  6. Jacobsen, L. K., Southwick, S. M., & Kosten, T. R. (2001). Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(8), 1184-1190. NEUROBIOLOGY PAGE | 2-31
  7. Leeies, M., Pagura, J., Sareen, J., & Bolton, J. M. (2010). The use of alcohol and drugs to self‐ medicate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 27(8), 731-736.
  8. Kumari, V., & Postma, P. (2005). Nicotine use in schizophrenia: The self-medication hypotheses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(6), 1021-1034.
  9. Anthenelli, R. M. (2010). Focus on: Comorbid mental health disorders. Alcohol Research & Health, 33(1-2), 109-117.
  10. Holmes, A., Fitzgerald, P. J., MacPherson, K. P., DeBrouse, L., Colacicco, G., Flynn, S. M., . . . Marcinkiewcz, C. A. (2012). Chronic alcohol remodels prefrontal neurons and disrupts NMDARmediated fear extinction encoding. Nature Neuroscience, 15(10), 1359-1361.
  11. Kelley, M. E., Wan, C. R., Broussard, B., Crisafio, A., Cristofaro, S., Johnson, S., . . . Walker, E. F. (2016). Marijuana use in the immediate 5-year premorbid period is associated with increased risk of onset of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 171(1-3), 62-67.

The Heroin Relapse and Overdose Death Connection

Heroin has a high relapse rate in part due to its highly addictive nature. Most heroin overdose deaths occur when a person relapses – partly because after staying sober for a period of time, the user’s tolerance level has dropped. Whether or not the user is aware of it, the body and brain have been reset back to a lower tolerance level than what it was at the high dosage use. This can cause the user to take in a lot more drugs than their system can handle. Since the body is no longer used to such a high dose, overdose and death often occur as the drug depresses respiration rate, causing breathing to slow to a dangerous level and even stop, or when the drug causes cardiac arrest or stroke.

For individuals struggling with heroin addiction, becoming aware of this fact can save their lives. Addiction treatment programs educate their recovering clients and do address this issue. Unfortunately, as a study published in the journal Addiction indicates, many individuals who undergo detox do not attend a rehabilitation program and experience relapse rates between 65 and 80 percent. According to the same study, the ones who do attend rehab, were 10 times less likely to relapse, within their first 30 days of completing detox. [1]

If you or someone you love is struggling with heroin addiction, Florida Center for Recovery can help. We have been providing all-inclusive heroin inpatient detox, comprehensive heroin rehabilitation, and aftercare programming since 2002.

Reach out to us by calling  800-851-3291. You may also chat with us on our website page, or fill out our contact form for quick answers to your questions.

There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reference:

[1] (Feb. 2012). “Drug-Free Housing for Substance Abus21ers Leaving Detox…” Johns Hopkins Medicine. Accessed June 19, 2014.

What Are The Benefits of Inpatient Rehab

When choosing between different addiction treatment options, inpatient rehabilitation facilities have been shown to be the preferable option. A quality drug and alcohol rehabilitation facility provides recovering individuals with a supportive environment, comprehensive treatment, professional support, and the aftercare programming needed to establish a successful recovery.

Additional benefits of an inpatient rehab program include:

The Physical Benefits – With the initial focus on detoxification, a certified medical detox facility helps the recovering client through the detox process easing the symptoms of withdrawal and managing serious medical situations that may arise. Medically supervised detox is strongly recommended for alcohol, opiate, or benzodiazepine withdrawals, which could be dangerous or even fatal.

Psychological Benefits – A good inpatient rehab program is going to offer a number of different psychotherapy options to support the recovering individual and their loved ones. Most and foremost, these programs will diagnose and address underlying mental health problems that can make a person vulnerable to relapse. As no two individuals are alike, individualized therapy offered in an inpatient setting provides therapists enough time to develop a comprehensive treatment program that will work for the individual person seeking help. This specialized and individualized type of care is often just possible when the continuum of therapy is provided through an inpatient addiction treatment program.

Emotional Benefits – If the treatment center employs the philosophy of treating the physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of the disease of addiction, the emotional benefits for clients cannot be overlooked. Although treating the physical and psychological dependence on drugs and/or alcohol is a major component of a rehab program, the peace of mind and the emotional well being that recovering individuals can acquire from receiving holistic therapies help heal the mind, body, and spirit. Facilities that include holistic therapies in their addiction treatment programs are successful at bridging the gap that many other programs leave.

Support Network Benefits – At an inpatient rehab facility clients are surrounded by a recovery community. Recovering clients in a rehab facility benefit from the 24/7 support of a therapeutic team that walks them from detox to rehabilitation and through the aftercare programs. They also get peer support from individuals who are going through the recovery process and those who have been successful in their recovery and are actively involved in helping others experience similar success.

It is important for individuals seeking addiction treatment, whether for themselves or for their loved ones, to analyze their situation including their needs and history of substance abuse, and find out if and how they want to change their life. Generally speaking, if there is a long history of substance abuse, the recommendation is to seek inpatient/residential program. Many times, attending a rehab program is the difference between life and death or at-least between a successful recovery and periodic relapse.

If you or someone you love is struggling with addiction, Florida Center for Recovery can answer questions you may have.

Call us at  800-851-3291. You may also chat with us through our website page, or fill out the contact form for quick answers to your question. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reach out to us. Florida Center for Recovery has been providing onsite detox, comprehensive addiction treatment, and aftercare programming since 2002.

Standard Care for Withdrawal Management (WM)

Recovering individuals going through withdrawals are treated differently from those who still go through some withdrawal symptoms but have already completed detox. For those starting the detox (wm) the Healthcare providers should be available 24 hours a day and the staff should include:

  • A doctor who sees patients on admission and is on call to provide care in case of complications
  • Nurses, who are responsible for monitoring the recovering client during the withdrawal, dispensing medications as directed by the doctor and generally providing the care, comfort and the information needed by the patient during the detox process

During the withdrawal management a patient should:

  • Be in a quiet and calm area
  • Be allowed to sleep or rest in bed if they wish, or to do moderate activities such as walking
  • Be offered opportunities to engage in meditation or other calming practices
  • Have health care providers available at all times to offer medications (if necessary), accurate, realistic information about drugs and withdrawal symptoms to help alleviate anxiety and fears.
  • Not be forced to do physical exercise. There is no evidence that physical exercise is helpful during WM. Physical exercise may prolong withdrawal and make withdrawal symptoms worse.

Recovering individuals while going through the withdrawal management process is not ready to engage in counseling or other psychological therapy. A person in withdrawal is often vulnerable and confused; hence that is not the appropriate time to start counseling.

If you or someone you love needs detox call Florida Center for Recovery. We have been providing medical detox at our Florida Rehab Center since 2002.

Reach out to us. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Our inpatient rehab programs are highly specialized and comprehensive in treating an array of addiction-related mental health issues such as trauma, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder.

Contact us at  800-851-3291, chat with an admissions advisor or simply fill out our contact form for answers to questions you have regarding addiction and addiction treatment.

Is It safe to Use Prescription Drugs in Combination with Over the Counter Medications or Alcohol?

Individuals who are taking a prescription medication and or over-the-counter (OTC) medications should consult their health care provider for the safety of using their medications in combination with other substances including alcohol. There are a number of factors such as type of medication, dosage, and the individual’s general health that influence the safety of taking medications when other substances are involved.

Depressants drugs that slow down breathing rate, such as opioids, alcohol, antihistamines, central nervous system depressants such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, or general anesthetics are especially dangerous when taken in combination, due to the risk of an increase in life-threatening respiratory depression risks.1,2

Stimulants also present risks when used with other medications, unless otherwise prescribed by a physician. There are stimulants that have the chance of overdose when accidentally taken in combination with other medications such as the OTC cold medicines containing decongestants. Combining these substances may cause blood pressure to become dangerously high or lead to irregular heart rhythms.3

If you or someone you love is struggling with prescription drug addiction, get help. Florida Center for Recovery can answer questions you have about prescription drug detox and therapeutic rehab programs. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reach out to us. Florida Center for Recovery has been providing comprehensive addiction treatment services including onsite medical detox, and aftercare programming since 2002. Our inpatient rehab programs are highly specialized in treating an array of addiction-related mental health issues such as trauma, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder.

Contact us at 800-851-3291, chat with an admissions advisor using the chat button on our website, or simply fill out the contact form for answers to your questions.

References:

  1. Jones CM, McAninch JK. Emergency Department Visits and Overdose Deaths From Combined Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(4):493-501. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.03.040.
  2. Jones CM, Paulozzi LJ, Mack KA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths – the United States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(40):881-885.
  3. Pentel P. Toxicity of Over-the-Counter Stimulants. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 1984;252(14):1898. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03350140044023.

Do I Need Medical Detox, Rehab or Both?

Individuals struggling with drug and or alcohol addiction who are seeking treatment for the first time often do not know whether or not they need medical detox, rehab, or both. The same goes for those looking for treatment facilities for a struggling loved one.

Generally speaking, those who are chemically and physically dependent on a substance will require some type of detox and rehab. Detox is often required to clear toxins from the body before the individual is to attend an addiction rehab program. Medically supervised detox is designed to safely manage the withdrawal symptoms that follow drug or alcohol cessation.

There are individuals who might not require medical detox before attending a rehab program. The deciding factors for the need for detox are the substance of abuse, how much, how often, and how long the person has been abusing the drug of choice.

If you or someone you love is struggling with addiction, get help. Florida Center for Recovery is here to answer questions you have about detox, treatment programs, and recovery. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reach out to us. Florida Center for Recovery has been providing onsite detox, comprehensive addiction treatment, and aftercare programming since 2002.

Contact us at  800-851-3291, chat with us using the chat button on our website, or simply fill out our contact form for answers to your questions.

Related Resources:

Family Addiction Recovery

What is Florida Model of Addiction Treatment?

Health Insurance and Addiction Treatment

Choosing Where to Go for Rehab – Part I

Choosing Where to Go for Rehab – Part II

Understanding Addiction

Addiction: Treatment and Discharge

Communicating with a Loved One Who is Struggling with Addiction

Educating Yourself About Drug and Alcohol Rehab Programs

Learning about substance abuse and addiction allows one to understand and help someone who is struggling with drug and alcohol addiction and mitigate issues related to their behavior.

Nowadays we can easily educate ourselves about drugs and alcohol, among other things, through the Internet. Addiction treatment options are often found in the same fashion, by search the Internet. Whether the search is for “drug rehab”, “alcohol rehab”, “addiction treatment centers”, “rehab centers”, “drug detox centers” or any other addiction treatment keywords, there are an array of addiction treatment facilities that show up as a result. With so many rehabs to choose from, often individuals seeking help for themselves or their loved ones feel at loss, not knowing what to look for as the criteria for an effective and reputable facility.

It is worth noting that besides having to consider things such as payment options (insurance or private pay), treatment location, program approach, and availability of beds, there are other important criteria to be considered. Below is a list of questions one should ask the treatment centers under consideration. These preliminary questions provide a good guide for making an informed decision in choosing a reputable rehab center.

  1. How Long the Rehab Center Has Been In Business?
  2. How Long the Rehab Center Has Been Operating In The Same Physical Location?
  3. What Are The Rehab Center’s Certifications, Accreditation, and Memberships?
  4. What Treatment Is The Rehab Center Licensed For?
  5. What Are The Treatment Therapies Provided In The Rehab Programs offered?
  6. How Are The Loved Ones Involved in the Treatment Program?
  7. What Are The Previous Clients Saying About The Facility?

The main focus of educating yourself about the rehab facility’s business practices and operations is to not only give you the peace of mind about the facility that you or your loved one will be receiving treatment in but also to know that the place chosen, does have enough experience in helping the struggling individual successfully recover.

If you or someone you love is struggling with addiction, get help. Let Florida Center for Recovery answer your questions regarding addiction, treatment, and recovery. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reach out to us. Florida Center for Recovery provides onsite detox, addiction treatment, and aftercare programming so that you or your loved one can go through the entire treatment process and successfully recover, in one facility.

Contact us any time at 800-851-3291, or fill out our simple contact form.

Related Article:

REHAB CENTERS – WHAT YOU MUST KNOW ABOUT REHAB FACILITIES WHEN CHOOSING ONE?

How Long Alcohol Withdrawal Last

Understanding what happens to one’s body and how it feels when an alcohol-dependent person stops drinking is an important part of any successful alcohol recovery. Often the question asked by individuals who, for the first time are going through the process of addiction recovery is: How Long Alcohol Withdrawal Last?

Although there are basically three stages of alcohol withdrawal and which they usually start within 6 to 24 hours after the last drink, the withdrawal process varies based on an individual’s level of addiction. How much, how often, and how long someone has been drinking can greatly impact the withdrawal period and the detox process. Below is the timeline of the three stages of alcohol withdrawal:

Stage 1 – Within 8 hours of the last drink: the individual may experience anxiety, abdominal pain, and Insomnia.

Stage 2 – Within 24 to 72 hours after the last drink: Blood pressure along with the body temperature may rise. Heart rate may fluctuate and the recovering individual may experience confusion.

Stage 3 – 72 hours to 7 days: Hallucination has been reported, and some people even experience seizures at this stage. Agitation is commonly experienced as well.

The overall symptoms of alcohol withdrawal can include the following:

  • Anxiety or depression
  • Sweating
  • Agitation or excitement
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Appetite loss
  • Insomnia
  • Delirium Tremens (DTs)
  • Seizures
  • Hallucinations

Typically, alcohol withdrawal symptoms decrease within five to seven days, but the psychological side effects can last for several weeks and beyond if withdrawal is not addressed and treated through a structured inpatient rehab program.

If you or someone you love is having a tough time with drinking, please get help. Florida Center for Recovery is ready to answer questions you may have about alcohol addiction, alcohol rehab, and alcohol withdrawal. There’s no obligation and your call is completely confidential.

Reach out to us. Florida Center for Recovery licensed for detox (provided on-premises), alcohol addiction treatment, and also provides aftercare programming so that you or your loved one can go through the entire treatment process with the support needed for a successful recovery.

Contact us at  800-851-3291, or fill out our simple contact form and we’ll get in touch with you.

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